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What is an Anarchy Government?
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‎"The best way to control the opposition is to lead it ourselves."
— Vladimir Lenin, Second International

Different Forms of Government Defined

Anarchy | *Republic* | Democracy | Oligarchy | Monarchy

Table of Contents

  1. Definition of Anarchy
    1. Anarchist Philosophy
    2. Anarchist Symbolism
    3. Documentary Movies
  2. Anarchist Organizations
    1. Black Bloc
    2. Black Bloc Police Instigators
    3. Der Schwarze Block
  3. Historical Infiltrators
    1. Hitler's Brownshirts (StormTroopers)
      1. Terror broken by Terror
      2. Opposition Stomped
    2. Mussolini's Blackshirts
      1. Italian Social Republic
      2. Black Brigades
    3. British Fascist Blackshirts
    4. Blackshirts in Albania
    5. Blackshirts in India
    6. Silvershirts in USA
    7. Redshirts in Italy
    8. Greenshirts in Romanian
    9. Iron Guard Death Squads
    10. Greenshirts in UK
    11. Greenshirts in Ireland
    12. Blueshirts in Ireland
    13. Blueshirts in Canada
    14. Goldshirts in Mexico
    15. Greyshirts in South Africa
    16. Blue Shirts in China
  4. Additional Resources

Related Resources

Ancient Greeks stated before their fall:
"Without laws there can be no freedom."

5 Stated Goals of the Illuminati in the Order of Perfectabilists:

  1. Abolition of monarchies and all ordered governments
  2. Abolition of private property and inheritances
  3. Abolition of patriotism and nationalism
  4. Abolition of family life and the institution of marriage,
    & establishment of communal education for children
  5. Abolition of all religion

"Democracy will soon degenerate into an anarchy; such an anarchy that every man will do what is right in his own eyes and no man's life or property or reputation or liberty will be secure, and every one of these will soon mould itself into a system of subordination of all the moral virtues and intellectual abilities, all the powers of wealth, beauty, wit, and science, to the wanton pleasures, the capricious will, and the execrable [abominable] cruelty of one or a very few."
— John Adams

The USA is a "Constitutional Republic", which is the most FREE and secure form of government. Historically, Republics have been downgraded to greedy democracies, chaotic anarchies, and are finally ruled by dictators under an oligarchy. Our FREE Market & FREE-Enterprise economic system is NOT a form of government.

Anarchy: Chaos; Ruled by Nobody

Republic: Rule of Law; Constitution

Democracy: Majority Rules

Oligarchy: Ruled by Elite Group

Monarchy: Ruled by King or Queen

Although an anarchy may SEEM like the social system with the MOST Freedom - anarchy is NOT REALLY as "free" as one might expect. In an anarchy, there are no laws in place TO PROTECT YOUR FREEDOM. Anyone can 'legally' steal your car, break into your home, rape your children, and murder you without any 'legal' consequences.

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Anarchy circle-A symbol
What is an Anarchy?

Anarchy |ˈanərkē| noun:
• A state of disorder DUE to absence or nonrecognition of authority.
• Absence of government and absolute freedom of the individual.

Anarchic |aˈnärkik| adjective:
with NO controlling rules or principles to give order.

Thesaurus: Lawlessness, nihilism, mobocracy, insurrection, disorder, chaos, mayhem, tumult, turmoil.

ORIGIN (Etymology): mid 16th century: via medieval Latin anarchia from Greek anarkhia (Athens) "lack of a leader, the state of people without a government", from anarkhos, from an- ‘without’ + arkhos ‘chief, ruler’.
Ancient History: In Classical Athens, there was a temporary state of chaos (anarchy, literally "An-Archon") when the 3 Archons were absent (the Year of Thirty Tyrants, 404 B.C., when there was no archon): 30 Tyrants rose up, created an oligarchy in a coup, then murdered 5% of the Athenians and exiled many more until they were violently overthrown one year later.
Modern History: 1530s, "absence of government," from French anarchie.
• From 1660s as "confusion or absence of authority in general"; by 1850 in reference to the social THEORY advocating "order without power", with associations and co-operatives taking the place of direct government, as formulated in the 1830s by communist French political philosopher Prince Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865).
Modern Anarchist Leaders (Lysander Spooner, Prince Pierre-Joseph Proudhon) were part of the First International Communist Party (Karl Marx), which is the ORIGIN of the "Circle-A" logo with which most anarchist collectivists are branded. The anarchists became "AnComs" (Communist Anarchists) & "AnCaps" (Capitalist Anarchists) as controlled oppostion after breaking off from Lenin's Second International Communist Party.

Anarchism |ˈanərˌkizəm| noun: Belief in the abolition of all government and the organization of society on a voluntary, cooperative basis without recourse to force or compulsion. Anarchists as a political force or movement : socialism & anarchism emerged to offer organized protest against the injustices of Spanish society.

Anarchist |ˈanərkist| noun: A person who believes in or tries to bring about anarchy.
adjective: relating to or supporting anarchy or anarchists. DERIVATIVES: anarchistic |ˌanərˈkistik| adjective
ORIGIN mid 17th cent.: from Greek anarkhos ‘without a chief’ + -ist ; later influenced by French anarchiste.

Lawless |ˈlôləs| adjective: not governed by or obedient to laws; characterized by a lack of civic order : it was a lawless, anarchic city. A lawless country ungovernable, unruly, disruptive, anarchic, disorderly, rebellious, insubordinate, riotous, mutinous; uncivilized, wild. antonym orderly.

Disorder |disˈôrdər| noun: A state of confusion. The disruption of peaceful and law-abiding behavior : recurrent food crises led to periodic outbreaks of disorder. Medicine a disruption of normal physical or mental functions; a disease or abnormal condition : eating disorders | an improved understanding of mental disorder.

Tumult |ˈt(y)oōˌməlt| noun [usu. in sing. ] A loud, confused noise, esp. one caused by a large mass of people : a tumult of shouting and screaming broke out. Confusion or disorder.

Archon (Gr. ἄρχων, pl. ἄρχοντες) is a Greek word that means "ruler", frequently used as the title of a specific public office. It is the masculine present participle of the verb stem αρχ-, meaning "to rule", derived from the same root as monarch and hierarchy.

Anarchy is NOT equal to: Libertarianism, Voluntaryism, Capitalism, Socialism, Communism, Peace, Prosperity - nor any other term that collectivists will deliberately attempt to conflate with anarchy to subscribe followers. It's a period of chaos historically occuring during and after the fall of a republic and followed by the rise of a dictatorship; no ruler, no rules, no principles. Their weakest opponent is their own projected "Statist" strawman - and the anarchists' strongest opponent is the Constitution and the Republic that the anarchists' (and the illuminati's) primary goal is to destroy.

Ancient Greeks stated before their fall:
"Without laws there can be no freedom."

Nazi SA Brownshirts LogoREAL Anarchists do NOT hold meetings to discuss how to advertise and govern their "Anarchy" - just like atheists do NOT attend Atheist churches every Sunday. The REAL Anarchists are more interested in self-sustainability, in growing their own food, and basically taking care of themselves - because they are responsible and do NOT need a leader nor government to babysit and provide them with 'welfare'.

Anarchy means "without government." At times in the past, some people have concluded that many of man's worse crimes were committed by governments, so they decided that having no government might be a good idea, but this is a mistaken view - as the ancient Greeks stated: "Without law, there can be no freedom," and the Founding Fathers agreed, knowing that some laws would be necessary to protect a civilized society.

Anarchist Philosophy, Anarchy Flags, Anarchy StarsIn a state of Anarchy, everyone needs to constantly guard life, liberty, and property, and the lives of family members. Also everyone needs to be armed and movement is restricted due to property needing to be protected at all times, therefore a proper amount of government makes everyone freer.

Although an anarchy may SEEM like the social system with the MOST Freedom - anarchy is NOT REALLY as "free" as one might expect. In an anarchy, there are no laws in place TO PROTECT YOUR FREEDOM. Anyone can 'legally' steal your car, break into your home, rape your children, and murder you without any 'legal' consequences.

So in an anarchy, people must stay close to their posessions or they will inevitably lose them. You wouldn't even have the FREEDOM to go to work, nor to tend your crops in your field - without keeping an eye on your house, family, and belongings to make sure they are protected. This is precisely WHY the colonies eventually hired Sheriffs to guard them and protect their freedom. Early settlements created basic laws to protect people so they were FREE to live and prosper.

People living in such chaos often go to those best able to put an end to it and beg them to take control to restore order, but usually the people who are best able to put an end to the chaos are the very people who started it (fake anarchists like black bloc), therefore those faux "anarchists" will eventually form an oligarchy.

This is exactly what happened in Russia where Lenin's communist Bolsheviks (democrats) took total power, in Italy where Mussolini's fascist blackshirts created the chaos needed to put him into power, and in Germany where Hitler's nazi (socialist) brownshirts created the chaos needed to put him into power. Anarchy exists only as a temporary transition from a form of government that exists, to a form of government desired by the power hungry elite.

Anarchy is simply a transitional phase between a Republic, a degeneration into democracy, followed by a brief period of anarchy, and eventually an oligarchy finally implemented "to restore the order" - an oligarchy that was desired, crafted, inherited and controlled by the elite people seeking power.

Black Bloc protests
This deliberate agitation is most transparently illustrated by the WTO mercinaries, hired to dress up in black masks posing as (fake) "anarchists" attending the 1999 WTO protests in Seattle, Washington; the treasonous Black Bloc destroyed property until the NWO's military storm troopers and local police unleashed a fury of tear gas and began to arrest the otherwise peaceful PEACE protesters, who were using their First Amendment rights of FREE-SPEECH to voice their opinion.

The protesters thought the United States should NOT be involved with the criminal practices of the UN, WTO, WHO, FAO, CAC, and specifically the trade agreements with the SPP including CAFTA, NAFTA, and GATT (of which Obama used to secure the Labor Union's voters by promising to GET THEM OUT OF these treasonous trade agreements). The same is true for many other events like G8 & G20; the fake anarchists wear NEW black clothes still with creases from factory folding, they wear police issue military boots, and the cowards always cover their faces because they're afraid of being documented as the traitors THEY are.

"Democracy will soon degenerate into an anarchy; such an anarchy that every man will do what is right in his own eyes and no man's life or property or reputation or liberty will be secure, and every one of these will soon mould itself into a system of subordination of all the moral virtues and intellectual abilities, all the powers of wealth, beauty, wit, and science, to the wanton pleasures, the capricious will, and the execrable [abominable] cruelty of one or a very few."
— John Adams

"[On ancient Athens]: In the end, more than freedom, they wanted security. They wanted a comfortable life, and they lost it all" — security, comfort, and freedom. When the Athenians finally wanted not to give to society but for society to give to them, when the freedom they wished for most was freedom from responsibility, then Athens ceased to be free and was never free again." — Edward Gibbon


Year of 30 Tyrants (An-Archon-ists)

In Classical Athens, there was a temporary state of chaos (anarchy, literally "An-Archon") when the 3 Archons were absent (the Year of Thirty Tyrants, 404 B.C., when there was no archon): 30 Tyrants rose up, created an oligarchy in a coup, robbed the citizens, then murdered 5% of the Athenians and exiled many more - until they were violently overthrown one year later when their leader (who accused his co-founder of treason and forced him to drink Hemlock) was murdered in a counter-coup. Historians have argued that the violence and brutality the Thirty Tyrants carried out in Athens was necessary to transition Athens from a democracy to an oligarchy.

The Thirty Tyrants (Ancient Greek: οἱ τριάκοντα τύραννοι, hoi triákonta týrannoi) were a pro-Spartan oligarchy installed in Athens after its defeat in the Peloponnesian War in 404 BC. Upon Lysander's request, the Thirty Tyrants were elected as a government, not just as a legislative committee. The Thirty Tyrants maintained power for 13 months. Though brief, their reign resulted in the killing of 5% of the Athenian population, the confiscation of citizens' property, and the exile of other democratic supporters. They became known as the "Thirty Tyrants" because of their cruel and oppressive tactics. The two leading members were Critias and Theramenes.

With Spartan support, the Thirty Tyrants established an interim government in Athens. The Thirty Tyrants were concerned with the revision and/or erasure of democratic laws inscribed on the wall next to the Stoa Basileios. Consequently, the Thirty Tyrants reduced the rights of Athenian citizens in order to institute an oligarchical regime. The Thirty Tyrants appointed a council of 500 to serve the judicial functions formerly belonging to all the citizens. However, not all Athenian men had their rights removed. In fact, the Thirty Tyrants chose 3,000 Athenian men "to share in the government". These hand-selected individuals had the right to carry weapons, to have a jury trial, and to reside within city limits. The list of the selected 3,000 was consistently revised. Although little is known about these 3,000 men (for a complete record was never documented) it is hypothesised that the Thirty Tyrants appointed these select few as the only men that the Thirty Tyrants could find who were loyally devoted to their regime. The majority of Athenian citizens did not support the rule of the Thirty Tyrants.

Led by Critias, the Thirty Tyrants executed, murdered, and exiled many Athenians. Critias, a former pupil of Socrates, and considered a cruel, frightening, and inhumane man, "determined to remake the city to his own anti-democratic mold whatever the human cost". The Thirty removed criminals as well as many ordinary citizens whom they considered "unfriendly" to the new regime for expressing support of the democracy. Of the many that Critias sentenced to death, Theramenes was forced to drink hemlock. Critias believed that Theramenes threatened the rule of the oligarchy, so Critias labelled Theramenes a conspirator and accused him of treason. According to Aristotle in the Athenian Constitution, the Thirty executed 1,500 of Athens' most prominent democrats. Many wealthy citizens were executed for the purpose of liquidating their assets, which were then distributed amongst the Thirty Tyrants and their supporters. They also hired 300 "lash-bearers" or whip-bearing men to intimidate Athenian citizens.

The Thirty Tyrants's regime did not meet with much overt opposition, although many Athenians disliked the new form of government. Amongst the larger Athenian population, those who did not approve of the implemented laws could either fight (and risk exile or execution) or accept the Thirty Tyrants's rule. Some supporters of democracy chose to fight and were exiled, among them Thrasybulus, a trierarch in the Athenian navy and noted supporter of democratic government. The uprising that overthrew the Thirty Tyrants in 403 BCE was orchestrated by a group of exiles led by Thrasybulus. Critias was killed in the initial revolt.

The Archons

Archon (Gr. ἄρχων, pl. ἄρχοντες) is a Greek word that means "ruler", frequently used as the title of a specific public office. It is the masculine present participle of the verb stem αρχ-, meaning "to rule", derived from the same root as monarch and hierarchy.

In the early literary period of ancient Greece the chief magistrates of various Greek city states were called Archon. The term was also used throughout Greek history in a more general sense, ranging from "club leader" to "master of the tables" at syssitia to "Roman governor". In Roman terms, archontes ruled by imperium, whereas Basileis ("Kings") had auctoritas.

In Athens a system of 3 concurrent Archons evolved, the 3 office holders being known as the Archon Eponymos, the Polemarch, and the Archon Basileus. Originally these offices were filled from the aristocracy by elections every 10 years. During this period the Eponymos Archon was the chief magistrate, the Polemarch was the head of the armed forces, and the Archon Basileus was responsible for the civic religious arrangements. After 683 BC the offices were held for only a single year, and the year was named after the Archon Eponymos. (Many ancient calendar systems did not number their years consecutively.) After 487 BC the archonships were assigned by lot to any citizen and the Polemarch's military duties were taken over by a new class of generals known as strategoi. The Polemarch thereafter had only minor religious duties. The Archon Eponymos remained the titular head of state under democracy, though of much reduced political importance. The Archons were assisted by "junior Archons", called Thesmothetes. After 457 BC ex-archons were automatically enrolled as life members of the Areopagus, though that assembly was no longer extremely important politically at that time.

Under the Athenian constitution, Archons were also in charge of organizing festivals by bringing together poets, playwrights, actors, and city-appointed choregai (wealthy citizen patrons). The Archon would begin this process months in advance of a festival by selecting a chorus of 3 playwrights based on descriptions of the projected plays. Each playwright would be assigned a choregos, also selected by the Archon, from among the wealthy citizens who would pay all the expenses of costumes, masks, and training the chorus. The Archon also assigned each playwright a principal actor (the protagonist), as well as a second and third actor. The City Dionysia, an ancient dramatic festival held in March in which tragedy, comedy, and satyric drama originated, was under the direction of one of the principal magistrates, the archon eponymos. The archon eponymos remained the titular head of state under democracy, though of much reduced political importance.


Chaotic FALL of the Roman Republic

The Romans adopted Solan's ideas and created the Twelve Tables of the Roman Law and chartered a Republic with a Constitution that limited Government power and left the people alone. Since government was limited, the people were free to produce, with the understanding that they could keep the fruits of their labor, and in time Rome became wealthy and the envy of the world.

Eventually the people of Rome forgot that the essence of freedom is the proper limitation of government and that when government power grows, people’s freedom recedes. Power seeking politicians began to exceed the powers granted them in the Roman Constitution, such as by using government power to take property from some and give it to others through agriculture subsidies followed by housing and welfare programs.

As government power continued to expand, the private sector was increasingly taxed which led to productivity declining, then shortages developing, followed by mobs of people roaming the streets demanding bread and services from the government, with many induced to trade freedom for security. Eventually the whole system came crashing down, and Rome went from a Republic to a Democracy to an Anarchy to an Oligarchy under a progression of the Caesars (now known as Papal Caesars) that never gave up their throne in Rome.

Anarchic FALL of the Italian Republic

"The turbulence that followed the devastation of World War I, inspired by the Russian Revolution, led to turmoil and anarchy. The liberal establishment, fearing a socialist revolution, started to endorse the small National Fascist Party, led by Benito Mussolini. In October 1922 the fascists attempted a coup (the "March on Rome"), supported by king Victor Emmanuel III. Over the next few years, Mussolini banned all political parties and curtailed personal liberties, thus forming a dictatorship."

Anarchic FALL of the German Republic

"The first challenge to the Weimar Republic came when a group of communists and anarchists took over the Bavarian government in Munich and declared the creation of the Bavarian Soviet Republic. The uprising was brutally attacked by Freikorps, which consisted mainly of ex-soldiers dismissed from the army and who were well-paid to kill the most active supporters of a democratic Germany. The Freikorps was an army outside the control of the government, but they were in close contact with their allies in the Reichswehr."

Anarchist Symbolism

punk anarchist symbol Anarchist black cross Kraak logo
anarchist black cat symbol anarchist black rose symbol anarchist black clog symbol
anarchist black flag symbol Flag of Edward England Greedpeace Sea Shepherd Conservation Society


Documentary Movies About Anarchy

Anarchism in America Police State 2000 Operation Urban Warrior Martial Law 911


WHAT are Faux-Anarchist ORGANIZATIONS?

Voluntaryism (Auberon Herbert)

Herbert is known as the originator of voluntaryism, and wrote The Voluntaryist Creed (1908). He advocated a strictly limited, voluntarily funded, rights-protecting government called “Voluntaryism”.

Auberon Edward William Molyneux Herbert (June 18, 1838 in Highclere – November 5, 1906) was a writer, theorist, philosopher, and 19th century individualist. A member of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, Herbert was a son of the 3rd Earl of Carnarvon. He was Member of Parliament for the two member constituency of Nottingham between 1870–1874. He promoted a classical liberal philosophy and took the ideas of Herbert Spencer a stage further by advocating voluntary-funded government that uses force only in defense of individual liberty and private property.

Herbert explicitly rejected the label "Anarchist" for his ideas. He argued that anarchy was a "contradiction," and that the Voluntaryists "reject the Anarchist creed." They "believe in a national government, voluntary supported... and only entrusted with force for protection of person and property." He called his system of a national government funded by non-coerced contributions "the Voluntary State."
("A Voluntaryist Appeal", Herbert Spencer and the Limits of the State, p. 239 and p. 228)

Anarchist William R. McKercher notes that Herbert "was often mistakenly taken as an Anarchist" but "a reading of Herbert's work will show that he was NOT an Anarchist."
(Freedom and Authority, p. 199 and p. 73)

The leading British anarchist journal of the time noted that the "Auberon Herbertites in England are sometimes called Anarchists by outsiders, but they are willing to compromise with the inequity of government to maintain private property."
(Freedom, Vol. II, No. 17, 1888)

Although some people claim Herbert was an anarchist, he emphatically was not. He explicitly opposed all forms of anarchy, which he saw as “merely one more creed of force” and frequently chided for being inherently contradictory. For instance:

"My charge against Anarchism is that it sees many forms of crime existing in the world, and it refuses to come to any settled opinion as to what it will do in the matter. If it says it will do nothing, then we must live under the reign of the murderer...; if it says it will have some form of local jury, then we are back into government again at once."
– Auberon Herbet, Founder of Voluntaryism

Herbert thoroughly rejected anarchism and advocated a “central and regularly constituted government” dedicated to the protection of individual rights. A proper government, he held, is one that uses force only against those who initiate its use. In his words:

"The forces of government can only be rightly directed against one class of persons; that is against those who are “aggressives” upon others; never against the “nonaggressives.” We ought not to direct our attacks (as the anarchists do) against all government... [or] against government strictly limited to its legitimate duties in defense of self-ownership and individual rights, but only against the overgrown, the exaggerated, the insolent, unreasonable and indefensible forms of government... under which, those who govern, usurp powers of all kinds, that do not and cannot belong to them, laboring under the ludicrous mistake that they are owners of the nation, owners of the bodies and minds of those very individuals, who called them into existence."
– Auberon Herbet, Founder of Voluntaryism

Herbert’s writings are available in several books, including A Politician in Trouble About His Soul (London: Chapman and Hall, 1884; available as a reprint by Forgotten Books); The Right and Wrong of Compulsion by the State, and Other Essays, a compilation of Herbert’s essays, edited by Eric Mack (Indianapolis: Liberty Classics, 1978); Taxation and Anarchism: A Discussion Between the Hon. Auberon Herbert and J. H. Levy (London: Personal Rights Association, 1912; available as a reprint by the University of Michigan); and Herbert Spencer and the Limits of the State (Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 1996). All are worth reading.

Antifa (Antifaschistische Aktion)

Antifaschistische Aktion (German: [ˌantifaˈʃɪstɪʃə akˈtsi̯oːn]), abbreviated as Antifa (German: [ˈantifaː]), is a militant anti-fascist network in Germany.

The first German movement to call itself Antifaschistische Aktion was proclaimed by the German Communist Party (KPD) in their newspaper Rote Fahne in 1932 and held its first rally in Berlin on July 10, 1932, then capital of the Weimar Republic. Its two-flag logo, designed by Association of Revolutionary Visual Artists members Max Keilson and Max Gebhard, remains a widely used symbol of militant anti-fascism.

Groups called “Antifaschistische Ausschüsse,” “Antifaschistische Kommittees” or “Antifaschistische Aktion”, all typically abbreviated to Antifa, spontaneously re-emerged in Germany in 1944, mainly involving veterans of pre-war KPD, KPO and SPD politics, as well as some members of other democratic political parties and Christians who opposed the Nazi régime. In 1945, for example, the antifascist committee in the city of Olbernhau included "3 Communists and 3 Social Democrats" while the antifascist committee in Leipzig "had 9 members, including 3 liberals and progressive Christians."

In the French, British, and American zones, Antifas began to recede by the late summer of 1945, marginalized by Allied bans on political organization and by re-emerging divisions between within the movement between Communists and others, while in East Germany the Antifa groups were absorbed into the new Stalinist state. On July 11, 1945, the Soviets permitted the formation of the "United Front of the Antifascist-Democratic Parties", which included representatives from the "communist KPD, the Social Democratic SPD, the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), and the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP)."

In October 2016, the Antifa in Dresden campaigned on the occasion of the anniversary of the reunification of Germany on October 3 for "turning Unity celebrations into a disaster" („Einheitsfeierlichkeiten zum Desaster machen“), to protest this display of new German nationalism, whilst explicitly not ruling out the use of violence.


The Black Bloc in the USA

1999 Seattle WTO tear gas stormtroopers
The first recorded use of the Black Bloc tactic in United States of America was in 1989 at a protest at the Pentagon. Other early use in the USA were the Earth Day Wall Street Action in 1990 and the February 1991 protests against the Gulf War. These were initiated by Love and Rage, a North American revolutionary anarchist ORGANIZATION active in New York.

Black blocs gained significant media attention when a black bloc caused damage to property of GAP, Starbucks, Old Navy, and other retail locations in downtown Seattle during the 1999 anti-WTO demonstrations. They were a common feature of subsequent anti-globalization (anti-NWO) protests. During the 2010 G20 Summit in Toronto, a black bloc riot damaged a number of retail locations including an Urban Outfitters, American Apparel, Adidas Store, Starbucks and many banking establishments.

Black Bloc Police infiltration = Cops Instigating Mass Arrests

Black Bloc at World Bank protest
Police and security services have infiltrated black blocs with undercover officers. Since all members conceal their identities, it is harder to recognize infiltrators. Allegations first surfaced after several demonstrations. At the 2001 G8 summit in Genoa, amongst the many complaints about the police there was mention of video footage in which "men in black were seen getting out of police vans near protest marches." In August 2007, Quebec police admitted that "their officers disguised themselves as demonstrators." On these occasions, some were identified by genuine protesters because of their police-issue footwear.

Black Bloc police-issue boots

Black Bloc's German Origins - "Der Schwarze Block"

Black Unity Colors of Black-Bloc
This tactic was developed following increased use of police force following the 1977 Brokdorf demonstration by the German police in 1980, particularly aimed at anti-nuclear activists and squatters. Key areas for this development were Hafenstraße, Hamburg, and Kreuzberg, Berlin. These were social spaces occupied by dissidents who preferred to create their own social institutions based on communal living and alternative community centres. In June 1980, the German Police forcefully evicted the Free Republic of Wendland, an anti-nuclear protest camp in Gorleben, Wendland. This attack on 5,000 peaceful protesters led many former pacifists to become willing to use violent methods. By December 1980 the Berlin City Government organised an escalating cycle of mass arrests, followed by other local authorities across West Germany. The squatters resisted by opening new squats, as the old ones were evicted. Following the mass arrest of squatters in Freiburg, demonstrations were held in their support in many German cities. The day was dubbed Black Friday following a demonstration in Berlin at which between 15,000 to 20,000 people took to the streets and destroyed an expensive shopping area. The tactic of wearing identical black clothes and masks meant that the autonomen were better able to resist the police and elude identification. The German media labeled them der schwarze Block ("the black block"). In the Netherlands, similar militant resistance developed, but the wearing of ski-masks was less prevalent and the phrase Black Helmet Brigade was used.

Black Bloc breaking Starbucks windows
In 1986 Hamburg squatters mobilised following attacks on the Hafenstraße. A demonstration of 10,000 took to the streets surrounding at least 1,500 people in a black bloc. They carried a large banner saying "Build Revolutionary Dual Power!" At the end of the march, the black bloc then engaged in street fighting that forced the police to retreat. The next day 13 department stores in Hamburg were set alight, causing nearly $10 million in damage. Later that year, following the Chernobyl disaster, militant anti-nuclear activists used the tactic.

On 1st May 1987, a peaceful peoples fest in Berlin-Kreuzberg was attacked by West German police. In consequence of the unprovoked attack, thousands of people attacked the police with rocks, bottles and molotov cocktails. The riots became famous after the police had to completly pull out of the so called "SO 36" Neigbhourhood in Kreuzberg for several hours, and rioters looted shops together with residents.

Black Bloc vandalizing police cars
When Ronald Reagan came to Berlin in June 1987, he was met by around 50,000 demonstrators protesting against his Cold War policies. This included a black bloc of 3,000 people. A couple of months later, police intensified their harassment of the Hafenstraße squatters. In November 1987, the residents were joined by thousands of other Autonomen and fortified their squat, built barricades in the streets and defended themselves against the police for nearly 24 hours. After this the city authorities legalised the squatters residence.

On 1st May 1988, radical left groups organised a May Day demonstration through Berlin-Kreuzberg, ending in riots even heavier then the year before. The police were attacked with steel balls fired by slingshots, stones, fireworks and molotov cocktails. On 2nd May, headline of the Berlin newspaper B.Z. was "Beirut?? Nein, das ist Berlin!" (Beirut?? No, it´s Berlin!). The riots finally became a tradition in Berlin-Kreuzberg and have recurred every 1st May since, but never as fatally as in the first two years. When the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) met in Berlin in 1988, the autonomen hosted an international gathering of anti-capitalist activists. Numbering around 80,000, the protesters greatly outnumbered the police. Officials tried to maintain control by banning all demonstrations and attacking public assemblies. Nevertheless, there were riots and upmarket shopping areas were destroyed.

Black Block burning police cars on fire with molotov cocktails
In the period after the Berlin Wall, the German black bloc movement continued traditional riots such as May Day in Berlin-Kreuzberg, but with decreasing intensity. Their main focus became the struggle against the recurring popularity of Neo-Nazism in Germany. The "turn" came in June 2007, during the 33rd G8 Summit. A black block of 3,000 people built barricades, set cars alight and attacked the police during a mass demonstration in Rostock. 400 police officers were injured, and also about 500 demonstrators and activists injured. According to the German Verfassungsschutz, the weeks of organisation before the demonstration and the riots themselves were amounted to a revival for the militant left in Germany. Since the "Battle of Rostock", traditional "May Day Riots" after demonstrations every May 1st in Berlin, and since 2008 also in Hamburg, became more intense, and violence of the autonomen against police officers and political enemies at demonstrations of radical LEFT groups have dramatically increased.

Black Bloc in Germany


Historical Faux-Anarchist ORGANIZATIONS

FAKE Anarchists are ANGRY and ABUSIVE
There are many faux-anarchist *ORGAINZATIONS* throughout the world, often referred to as Stormtroopers, Militia, Paramilitary, Squadrismo (political gangsters), Integralismo (Integral nationalism). Members of these groups are typically distinguished by the color of their shirts, political colors on political uniforms.

Paramilitary groups were formed throughout the Weimar Republic in the wake of Germany's defeat in World War I and the ensuing German Revolution. Some were created by political parties to help in recruiting, discipline and in preparation for seizing power. Some were created before World War I. Others were formed by individuals after the war and were called "Freikorps" (Free Corps are German volunteer military or paramilitary units). The party-affiliated groups and others were all outside government control, but the Freikorps units were under government control, supply and pay (usually through army sources).


International Workingmen's Association:

"First International" Communist Party

The International Workingmen's Association (IWA, 1864-1876), often called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist, communist and anarchist political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle. It was founded on September 28, 1864 in a workmen's meeting held in St. Martin's Hall, London. Its first congress was held in 1866 in Geneva.

It was founded by: President of the First International George Odger (British Trade Unionist), Henri Tolain (French Socialist), and Edward Spencer Beesly (English Positivist) on September 28, 1864.

Key members included: Karl Marx (German Author of Communist Manifesto), Friedrich Engels (German co-Author of Communist Manifesto), Lysander Spooner (American Anarchist), William Batchelder Greene (American Anarchist), Prince Peter Kropotkin (Russian Anarcho-Communist founder), Mikhail Bakunin (Russian Anarcho-Collectivist founder), Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (French "Father of Anarchism" and personal friend of Karl Marx who convinced him that private property should be abolished), Louis Auguste Blanqui (French Socialist), and Giuseppe Garibaldi (Italian Nationalist General of the RedShirts).

In Europe, a period of harsh reaction followed the widespread Revolutions of 1848. The next major phase of revolutionary activity began almost 20 years later with the founding of the IWA in 1864. At its peak, the IWA reported having 8 million members, while police reported 5 million. Their stated goals were: defense of the working class, class struggle against capitalism, and establishment of a socialist society.

In 1872 the First International (Marx) split in two over conflicts between communist and anarchist factions, and dissolved in 1876. The Second International (Lenin) was founded in 1889. Lenin said "The best way to control the opposition is to lead it". The anarchists who left were still communist anarchists (AnComs), led by a Russian communist. The socialist who gave Marx the great idea to ban private property became the leader of the Anarcho-Capitalists (AnCaps or "Anarcho-Collectivists"). The "Circle-A" logo that modern anarchist collectivists are still branded with, originated from and represents the First International's "Circle-A" logo.


"Second International" Communist Party

The Second International (1889–1916), the original Socialist International, was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889. At the Paris meeting delegations from 20 countries participated. It continued the work of the dissolved First International, though excluding the still-powerful anarcho-syndicalist movement and unions, and existed until 1916.

Among the Second International's famous actions were its 1889 declaration of May 1, May Day, as International Workers' Day and its 1910 declaration of the International Women's Day, first celebrated on March 19 and then on March 8 after the main day of the women's marches in 1917 during the Russian Revolution. It initiated the international campaign for the 8-hour working day.

The International's permanent executive and information body was the International Socialist Bureau (ISB), based in Brussels and formed after the International's Paris Congress of 1900. Emile Vandervelde and Camille Huysmans of the Belgian Labour Party were its chair and secretary. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Soviet Communist) was a member from 1905.

Anarchists tended to be excluded from the Second International, nevertheless "Anarchism had in fact dominated the London Congress of the Second International". This exclusion received the criticism from anti-authoritarian socialists present at the meetings. It has been argued that at some point the Second International turned "into a battleground over the issue of libertarian versus authoritarian socialism. Not only did they effectively present themselves as champions of minority rights; they also provoked the German Marxists into demonstrating a dictatorial intolerance which was a factor in preventing the British labor movement from following the Marxist direction indicated by such leaders as H. M. Hyndman".


"Third International" Communist Party

The Communist International, abbreviated as Comintern and also known as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism. The International intended to fight "by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and for the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the State."

The Comintern was founded after the 1915 Zimmerwald Conference in which Vladimir Lenin had organized the "Zimmerwald Left" against those who refused to approve any statement explicitly endorsing socialist revolutionary action, and after the 1916 dissolution of the Second International.

Communist front organizations were set up to attract non-members who agreed with the Party on certain specific points. Opposition to fascism was a common theme in the "Popular Front" era of the mid 1930s. The well-known names and prestige of artists, intellectuals and other "fellow travelers" were used to advance Party positions. Often they came to the USSR for propaganda tours praising the future. Under the leadership of Grigory Zinoviev the Comintern established fronts in many countries in the 1920s and after. To coordinate their activities, the Comintern set up international umbrella organizations linking groups across national borders, such as the Young Communist International (youth), Profintern (trade unions), Krestintern (peasants), International Red Aid (humanitarian aid), Sportintern (organized sports), etc. Front organizations were especially influential in France, which in 1933 became the base for Communist front organizer Willi Münzenberg. These organizations were dissolved in the late 1930s or early 1940s.

In September 1947, following the June 1947 Paris Conference on Marshall Aid, Stalin gathered a grouping of key European communist parties and set up the Cominform, or Communist Information Bureau, often seen as a substitute to the Comintern. It was a network made up of the Communist parties of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania, the Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia (led by Josip Broz Tito, it was expelled in June 1948). The Cominform was dissolved in 1956, following Stalin's 1953 death and the XXth Congress of the CPSU.

The OMS (Russian: ОМС), also known in English as the International Liaison Department (1921–1939), was "the most secret department" of the Comintern. It has also been translated as the Illegal Liaison Section and Foreign Liaison Department.


Antifa (Antifaschistische Aktion)

Antifaschistische Aktion (German: [ˌantifaˈʃɪstɪʃə akˈtsi̯oːn]), abbreviated as Antifa (German: [ˈantifaː]), is a militant anti-fascist network in Germany.

The first German movement to call itself Antifaschistische Aktion was proclaimed by the German Communist Party (KPD) in their newspaper Rote Fahne in 1932 and held its first rally in Berlin on July 10, 1932, then capital of the Weimar Republic. Its two-flag logo, designed by Association of Revolutionary Visual Artists members Max Keilson and Max Gebhard, remains a widely used symbol of militant anti-fascism.

Groups called “Antifaschistische Ausschüsse,” “Antifaschistische Kommittees” or “Antifaschistische Aktion”, all typically abbreviated to Antifa, spontaneously re-emerged in Germany in 1944, mainly involving veterans of pre-war KPD, KPO and SPD politics, as well as some members of other democratic political parties and Christians who opposed the Nazi régime. In 1945, for example, the antifascist committee in the city of Olbernhau included "3 Communists and 3 Social Democrats" while the antifascist committee in Leipzig "had 9 members, including 3 liberals and progressive Christians."

In the French, British, and American zones, Antifas began to recede by the late summer of 1945, marginalized by Allied bans on political organization and by re-emerging divisions between within the movement between Communists and others, while in East Germany the Antifa groups were absorbed into the new Stalinist state. On July 11, 1945, the Soviets permitted the formation of the "United Front of the Antifascist-Democratic Parties", which included representatives from the "communist KPD, the Social Democratic SPD, the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), and the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP)."

In October 2016, the Antifa in Dresden campaigned on the occasion of the anniversary of the reunification of Germany on October 3 for "turning Unity celebrations into a disaster" („Einheitsfeierlichkeiten zum Desaster machen“), to protest this display of new German nationalism, whilst explicitly not ruling out the use of violence.


Brownshirts - Nazi Germany Gestapo "Stormtroopers"

Brownshirts - Nazi Germany Gestapo StormtroopersThe Sturmabteilung (SA Brownshirts) = Storm Detachment or Stormtroopers) functioned as a paramilitary organization of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (or Nazi Party). It played a key role in Adolf Hitler's rise to power in the 1920s and 1930s. SA men were often called "brownshirts" for the colour of their uniforms (similar to Benito Mussolini's blackshirts).

The SA was the first Nazi paramilitary group to develop pseudo-military titles for bestowal upon its members. The SA ranks were adopted by several other Nazi Party groups, chief amongst them the SS, itself originally a branch of the SA. Brown-coloured shirts were chosen as the SA uniform because a large batch of them were cheaply available after World War I, having originally been ordered during the war for colonial troops posted to Germany's former African colonies.

The SA became largely irrelevant after Adolf Hitler ordered the "Blood Purge" of 1934. This event became known as the Night of the Long Knives. The SA was effectively superseded by the SS, though never formally dissolved.

"Terror must be broken by terror"

The term Sturmabteilung predates the founding of the Nazi Party in 1919. It originally was applied to the specialized assault troops of Imperial Germany in World War I who used Hutier infiltration tactics. Instead of large mass assaults, the Sturmabteilung were organised into small squads of a few soldiers each. The first official German stormtroop unit was authorized on 2 March 1915; the German high command ordered the VIII Corps to form a detachment to test experimental weapons and develop tactics which could break the deadlock on the Western Front. On 2 October 1916, Generalquartiermeister Erich Ludendorff ordered all German armies in the west to form a battalion of stormtroops. They were first used during the German Eighth Army's siege of Riga, and again at the Battle of Caporetto. Wider use followed on the Western Front in March 1918, where Allied lines were successfully pushed back tens of kilometers.

SA Stormtroopers at Nuremberg 1928
The DAP (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or German Workers' Party) was formed in Munich in January 1919 and Adolf Hitler joined it in September of that year. His talents for speaking, publicity and propaganda were quickly recognized. and by early 1920 he had gained some authority in the party, which changed its name to the NSDAP (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or National Socialist German Workers' Party) in April 1920.

The precursor to the SA had acted informally and on an ad hoc basis for some time before this. Hitler, with an eye always to helping the party to grow through propaganda, convinced the leadership committee to invest in an advertisement in the Munchener Beobachter (later renamed the Volkischer Beobachter) for a mass meeting in the Hofbräuhaus, to be held on 16 October 1919. Some 70 people attended, and a second such meeting was advertised for 13 November in the Eberlbrau beer hall. Some 130 people attended; there were hecklers, but Hitler's military friends promptly ejected them by force, and the agitators "flew down the stairs with gashed heads." The next year, on 24 February, he announced the party's Twenty-Five Point program at a mass meeting of some 2000 persons at the Hofbrauhaus. Protesters tried to shout Hitler down, but his army friends, armed with rubber truncheons, ejected the dissenters. The basis for the SA had been formed.

"All opposition must be stamped into the ground"

Hitler's Nazi SS
After Hitler took power in 1933, the SA became increasingly eager for power and saw themselves as the replacement for the German army, then limited by law to no more than 100,000 men. This angered the regular army (Reichswehr), which already resented the Nazis. It also led to tension with other leaders within the party, who saw Röhm's increasingly powerful SA as a threat to their own personal ambitions. Originally an adjunct to the SA, the Schutzstaffel (SS) was placed under the direct control of Heinrich Himmler in part to restrict the power of the SA and their leaders.

Adolf Hitler was also concerned that Röhm and the SA had the power to remove him as leader. Hermann Göring and Heinrich Himmler played on this fear by constantly feeding him with new information on Röhm's proposed coup. A masterstroke was to claim that Gregor Strasser, whom Hitler hated, was part of the planned conspiracy against him. With this news Hitler ordered all the SA leaders to attend a meeting in the Hanselbauer Hotel in Bad Wiessee.

Nazi Brownshirts Jacket
On 29 June 1934, Hitler, accompanied by the Schutzstaffel (SS), arrived at Bad Wiessee, where he personally placed Ernst Röhm and other high-ranking SA leaders under arrest. During the next 24 hours 200 other senior SA officers were arrested on the way to Wiesse. Many were shot as soon as they were captured but Hitler decided to pardon Röhm because of his past services to the movement. On 1 July after much pressure from Hermann Göring and Heinrich Himmler, Hitler agreed that Röhm should die. Hitler insisted that Röhm should first be allowed to commit suicide. However, when Röhm refused, he was killed by two SS officers, Theodor Eicke and Michael Lippert.

The names of 85 victims are known, however, estimates place the total number killed between 150 and 200 persons. While some Germans were shocked by the killing, many others saw Hitler as the one who restored "order" to the country. Goebbels's propaganda highlighted the "Röhm-Putsch" in the days that followed. The homosexuality of Röhm and other SA leaders was made public to add "shock value" even though the sexuality of Röhm and other named SA leaders had actually been known by Hitler and other Nazi leaders for years.

Hitler's Nazi Brownshirts
The SA officially ceased to exist in May 1945 when Nazi Germany collapsed. In the modern age, several Neo-Nazi groups claim to be continued extensions of the SA, with terms such as "stormtrooper" and "brown shirt" common in Neo-Nazi vocabulary, however these groups are often loosely organized with separate agendas.

Similar to the Waffen-SS wing of the SS, the SA also had an armed military wing, known as Feldherrnhalle. These formations expanded from regimental size in 1940 to a fully-fledged armored corps Panzerkorps Feldherrnhalle in 1945.


nazi gestapo concentration camp


Benito Mussolini with Adolph Hitler
Mussolini's Blackshirts

The Blackshirts (Italian: camicie nere, CCNN, or squadristi) were Fascist paramilitary groups in Italy during the period immediately following World War I and until the end of World War II. Blackshirts were officially known as the Voluntary Militia for National Security (Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale, or MVSN).

MVSN Original Organization,
MVSN Colonial Militia,
& Albanian Militia

The term was later applied to a similar group serving the British Union of Fascists before World War II, to the SS in Nazi Germany, and to members of a quasi-political organization in India.

Fascist headquarters - YES
Inspired by the military prowess and black uniforms of the Arditi, Italy's elite storm troops of World War I, the Fascist Blackshirts were organized by Benito Mussolini as the military tool of his political movement. The founders of the paramilitary groups were nationalist intellectuals, former army officers and young landowners opposing peasants' and country labourers' unions. Their methods became harsher as Mussolini's power grew, and they used violence and intimidation against Mussolini's opponents.

The Blackshirts were established as the squadristi in 1919 and consisted of many disgruntled former soldiers which may have numbered 200,000 by the time of Mussolini's March on Rome from October 27 to October 29, 1922. In 1922 the squadristi were reorganized into the milizia and formed numerous bandiere, and on 1 February 1923 the Blackshirts became the Volunteer Militia for National Security (Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale, or MVSN), which lasted until the Italian Armistice in 1943. The Italian Social Republic, Mussollini at ROMAN Colosseumlocated in the areas of northern Italy occupied by Germany, reformed the MVSN into the Republican National Guard (Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana, or GNR).

Benito Mussolini was the leader, or Commandant-General, of the blackshirts, but executive functions were carried out by the Chief of Staff, equivalent to an army general. The MVSN was formed in imitation of the ancient Roman army. Mussolini as Comandante Generale was made Primo Caporale Onorario (First Honorary Corporal) in 1935 and Adolf Hitler was made Caporale Onorario (Honorary Corporal) in 1937. All other ranks closely approximated those of the old Roman army.

Blackshirts Salute Mussolini
The ethos and sometimes the uniform were later copied by others who shared Mussolini's political ideas, including Adolf Hitler in Nazi Germany, who issued brown shirts to the "Storm Troops" (Sturmabteilung) and black uniforms to the "Defense Squad" (Schutzstaffel, also colloquially known as "Brownshirts", because they wore black suit-like tunics with brown shirts),

Sir Oswald Mosley in the United Kingdom (whose British Union of Fascists were also known as the "Blackshirts"), William Dudley Pelley in the United States (Silver Legion of America or "Silver Shirts"), in Mexico the Camisas Doradas or "Golden Shirts", Plínio Salgado in Brazil (whose followers wore green shirts), and Eoin O'Duffy in the Irish Free State (Army Comrades Association or "Blueshirts"). "Blueshirts" can also refer to Canadian fascists belonging to the Canadian National Socialist Unity Party and to the members of Falange Española, the most influential party within Franco's dictatorship in Spain. The paramilitary fascist Iron Guard members in Romania wore green shirts.

Italian National Fascist Party logoItalian Social Republic

The Italian Social Republic (Italian: Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a puppet state of Nazi Germany led by the "Duce of the Nation" and "Minister of Foreign Affairs" Benito Mussolini and his Republican Fascist Party. The RSI exercised official sovereignty in northern Italy but was largely dependent on the Wehrmacht (German military) to maintain control. The state was informally known as the Salò Republic (Italian: Repubblica di Salò) because the RSI's Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Mussolini) was headquartered in Salò, a small town on Lake Garda. Before November 25, 1943, when official title of the regime was adopted, the names Republican State of Italy and Republican National State (Italian: Stato Nazionale Repubblicano) were variously used. The Italian Social Republic was the second and last incarnation of a Fascist Italian state.

Black Brigades

Black Brigades BeretThe fall of the Fascist regime in Italy and the disbandment of the MVSN saw the establishment of the Republican National Guard (Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana or GNR), and the emergence of the Black Brigades (brigate nere). The forty Black Brigades consisted of former MVSN, former Carabinieri, former soldiers, former Italian Africa Police, and others still loyal to the Fascist cause. Alongside with their Nazi and Schutzstaffel (SS) counterparts, the Black Brigades committed many atrocities in their fight against the Italian resistance movement and political enemies. On August 15, 1944, the GNR became a part of the Army.

Black Brigades (Italian: Brigate Nere) were one of the Fascist paramilitary groups operating in the Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy), during the final years of World War II, and after the signing of the Italian Armistice in 1943. They were officially led by Alessandro Pavolini, former Minister of Culture (MINCULPOP) of the fascist era during the last years of the Reign of Italy.

Italian dictator Benito Mussolini was arrested after the Italian Grand Council of Fascism (Gran Consiglio del Fascismo), with the support of King Vittorio Emanuele III, overthrew him and began negotiations with the Allies for Italy's withdrawal from the war. Mussolini was rescued by German paratroopers led by Otto Skorzeny. He was then installed by the Germans as the President of the Italian Social Republic (RSI). The RSI was to be an Italian regime which was to nominally administer the German-occupied northern Italy. As the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (MVSN, also known as "Black Shirts") was disbanded by the terms of the armistice, the Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana was formed on 24 November 1943. The "Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana" was formed out of local police, ex-army, and others still loyal to the fascist cause.

Fascist Blackshirt MedalMussolini Hung Dead
The Black Brigades were formed from members of the Fascist Republican Party. Formation of the Black Brigades was sanctioned by a Fascist Republican Party law dated 30 June 1944. The brigade members not only fought the Allies and the Italian partisans, but they also fought against political opponents and other Black Brigade members whose support of "the cause" was deemed less than exuberant. Many Black Brigade members were killed in this type of in-fighting.

Although members of Black Brigades were issued standard Italian army uniforms, they tended to wear a black shirt or black sweater. They sometimes wore this with a windproof jacket in solid or camouflage colors. Members of Black Brigades tended to wear the grey-green uniform pants. The badge or insignia of the Black Brigades was the jawless death's head, or one of assorted Italian versions. The majority of Black Brigade members wore Italian army ski caps or berets dyed black. Some photos show members also wearing black German-style caps. Some were Italian made, some were supplied by Germany.

Huskies Blackshirt Flag Blackshirts Football Italian Fascist Flag


United Kingdom Blackshirts - British Union of Fascists

Blackshirts - British Union of Fascists
The British Union (BU) was a "far right" political party in the United Kingdom formed in 1932 by Sir Oswald Mosley as the British Union of Fascists, in 1936 it changed its name to the British Union of Fascists and National Socialists and then in 1937 to simply the British Union. It existed until 1940, when it was proscribed by the authorities.

Oswald Mosley was the youngest elected Conservative MP before crossing the floor in 1922, joining first the Labour Party and, shortly afterwards, the Independent Labour Party. He became a minister in Ramsay MacDonald's Labour government, advising on rising unemployment. In 1930 he issued his 'Mosley Memorandum' a proto-Keynesian programme of policies designed to tackle the unemployment problem, and resigned from the party soon after, in early 1931, when the plans were rejected. He immediately formed the New Party, with policies based on his memorandum; but, despite winning 16% of the vote at a by-election in Ashton-under-Lyne in early 1931, the party failed to achieve any electoral success.

British Blackshirts
Over 1931 the New Party became increasingly influenced by Fascism. The next year, after a January 1931 visit to Benito Mussolini in Italy, Mosley's own conversion to fascism was confirmed. He wound up the New Party in April, but preserved its youth movement, which would form the core of the BUF, intact. He spent the summer that year writing a fascist programme, The Greater Britain, and this formed the basis of policy of the BUF, which was launched in October 1932.

Mosley, known to his followers as The Leader, modeled his leadership style on Benito Mussolini and the BUF on Mussolini's National Fascist Party in Italy, including an imitation of the Italian Fascists' black uniforms for members, earning them the nickname "Blackshirts". The BUF was anti-communist and protectionist, and proposed replacing parliamentary democracy with executives elected to represent specific industries, trades or other professional interest groups – a system similar to the corporatism of the Italian fascists. Unlike the Italian system, British fascist corporatism planned to replace the House of Lords with elected executives drawn from major industries, the clergy, and colonies. The House of Commons was to be reduced to allow for a faster, "less factionist" democracy.

With lack of electoral success, the party drew away from mainstream politics and towards extreme antisemitism over 1934-1935, which saw the resignation of members such as Dr. Robert Forgan. Its provocative antisemitic activity in London led to serious, often violent, conflict, most famously at the Battle of Cable Street in October 1936, when over 100,000 anti-Fascists of English, Irish, Jewish and Somali (amongst others) descent successfully prevented the fascists from marching through London's East End.

Membership fell to below 8,000 by the end of 1935. The government was sufficiently concerned, however, to pass the Public Order Act 1936, which banned political uniforms and required police consent for political marches. This act hindered BUF activity, although in the years building up to the war they enjoyed brief success on the back of their "Peace Campaign" to prevent conflict with Germany. In May 1940, the BUF was banned outright by the government, and Mosley, along with 740 other fascists, was interned for much of World War II. After the war, Mosley made several unsuccessful attempts to revive his brand of fascism, notably in the Union Movement.


Blackshirts - Albania

Albanian Fascist Party
The Albanian Fascist Party (Albanian Partia Fashiste e Shqipërisë — PFSh) was a fascist movement which held nominal power in Albania from 1939, when the country was conquered by Italy, until 1943, when Italy capitulated to the Allies. Afterward, Albania fell under German occupation, and the PFSh was replaced by the Albanian National Socialist Party.

The PFSh was a branch of the Italian National Fascist Party (PNF) with Benito Mussolini at its head and organized along the same lines and principles, and with its own paramilitary Black Shirts, the Albanian Militia. It was never a mass movement, with membership reported at 13,500 in May 1940; however, during the PFSh's time in power, it did realize the vision of Greater Albania, expanding the borders of Albania into modern-day Epirus and Kosovo. It also engaged in some anti-semitism, with Albanian Jews forbidden from joining the party, and therefore excluded from some professions such as education; future communist leader Enver Hoxha also lost his job as a teacher for refusing to join the PFSh.

In early 1943, Maliq Bej Bushati, an anti-monarchist nationalist, reorganized the PFSh as the Guard of Great Albania and worked to distance Albania from Italy, striking fascist symbols from the flag (two fasces, one on each side of the Albanian eagle) and asserting Albanian autonomy in many spheres. However, the Italian surrender led to the country's occupation by Nazi Germany and changed the political situation in the country.

Upon the German takeover, SD leader Ernst Kaltenbrunner reorganized the Guard of Great Albania into the Albanian National Socialist Party, which had formal control of Albania. German control over Albania was looser than in other territories; the Albanian Nazi government did not expand systematic persecution of Jews to deportation or killings. Albanian volunteers did, however, form an SS division, the 21st Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Skanderbeg (1st Albanian).

After the fall of the Third Reich, Albania descended into civil war; some members of the Albanian National Socialist Party fought against the communists both in Albania and in Kosovo, with the last of these reported to have ceased fighting in 1951.


Nazi Blackshirts in India
Blackshirts in India

Blackshirts are members of the atheist quasi-political organization Dravidar Kazhagam in Tamil Nadu, founded by "Periyar" E V Ramasamy. The members wear black shirts to mock and protest the saffron vestments of Hindu religious leaders, and sadhus as black is generally associated with death and bad-luck as opposed to saffron's auspicious association. This has its origins when black flags as a protest tool were banned in Tamil Nadu and the members wore black outfits to circumvent this ban. Black shirts and black flags were also seen as a symbol of anarchy in southern India especially in Tamil Nadu during the early 20 century.


USA Silvershirts - Silver Legion of America

The Silver Legion of America, commonly known as the Silver Shirts, was an American fascist organization founded by William Dudley Pelley on January 30, 1933 - the same day Adolf Hitler (whom Pelley admired) seized power in Germany.

The Silver Legion’s emblem was a scarlet 'L'. It stood for Loyalty to the American Republic, Liberation from materialism and, of course, the Silver Legion itself.

The uniform of the Silver Legion members consisted of a campaign hat, blue corduroy trousers, leggings, tie, and silver shirt with a scarlet "L" over the heart. Pelley hoped to seize power in a 'silver revolution' and set himself up as dictator of the United States.

By 1934, the Silver Shirts had about 15,000 members. Most members were of the lower classes. The movement's strength dwindled after 1934. Four years later, the Silver Legion's membership was down to about 5,000. In 1941, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent declaration of war on the United States by Nazi Germany and the Kingdom of Italy led to the immediate collapse of the Silver Legion.


Redshirts in Italy

Redshirts (Italian Camicie rosse) or Red coats (Italian Giubbe Rosse) is the name given to the volunteers who followed Giuseppe Garibaldi in southern Italy during his Mille expedition to southern Italy, but sometimes extended to other campaigns of his. The name derived from the colour of their shirts (complete uniforms were beyond the finances of the Italian patriots).

The red shirts were started by Giuseppe Garibaldi. During his years of exile, Garibaldi was involved in a military action in Uruguay and spent time in private retirement in New York City. Both places have been claimed as the birthplace of the Garibaldian red shirt. From a stock destined for the slaughterhouse workers in Buenos Aires originally used the red shirts of Garibaldi in 1843.

Redshirts in Italy
The formation of his force of volunteers in Uruguay, his mastery of the techniques of guerilla warfare, his opposition to the Emperor of Brazil and Argentine territorial ambitions (perceived by liberals as also imperialist), and his victories in the battles of Cerro and Sant'Antonio in 1846 that assured the independence of Uruguay, made Garibaldi and his followers heroes in Italy and Europe. Garibaldi was later hailed as the "Hero of Two Worlds" on the basis of these exploits.

In Uruguay, calling on the Italians of Montevideo, Garibaldi formed the Italian Legion in 1843. In later years it was claimed that in Uruguay the legion first sported the red shirts associated with Garibaldi's "Thousand", which were said to have been obtained from a factory in Montevideo which had intended to export them to the slaughter houses of Argentina. Red shirts sported by Argentinian butchers in the 1840s are not otherwise documented, however, and the famous camicie rosse did not appear during Garibaldi's efforts in Rome in 1849–50.

Later, after the failure of the campaign for Rome, Garibaldi spent a few years, circa 1850–53, with the Italian patriot and inventor, Antonio Meucci, in a modest gothic frame house (now designated a New York City Landmark), on Staten Island, New York City, before sailing for Italy in 1853. There is a Garibaldi-Meucci museum on Staten Island.

In New York, during the pre-Civil War era, rival companies of volunteer firemen were the great working-class heroes of the city. Their courage, their civic spirit and the lively comradeship they demonstrated inspired fanatic followers throughout New York, the original "Buffs".

Volunteer fire companies varied in the completeness and details of their uniforms, but they all wore the red flannel shirt. When Garibaldi returned to Italy after his New York stay, the red shirts made their first appearance among his followers.

Garibaldi remained a local hero among European immigrants back in New York. The "Garibaldi Guard" (39th New York State Volunteers) fought in the American Civil War, 1861–65. As part of their uniform they wore red woolen "Garibaldi Shirts"—at least all enlisted men did. The New York Tribune sized them up:

"The officers of the Guard are men who have held important commands in the Hungarian, Italian, and German revolutionary armies. Many of them were in the Sardinian and French armies in the Crimea and in Algeria."

A woman's fashion, the Garibaldi shirt was begun in 1860 by the Empress Eugénie of France, and the blousy style remained popular for some years, eventually turning into the Victorian shirt waist and modern woman's blouse.

The Redshirts gave inspiration to Mussolini to form the Fascist blackshirts units, and from there to Hitler's brownshirted Sturmabteilung (SA) units, as well as the quasi-fascist Irish Blueshirts under Eoin O'Duffy. However, they had nothing to do with any proto-Fascist ideology; Garibaldi himself was a well-known socialist, and his men were patriots of different political leanings, banded together in the name of national freedom and unity.


Greenshirts - Romanian Iron Guard (Death Squads)

The Iron Guard (Romanian: Garda de fier pronounced [ˈɡarda de ˈfjer]) is the name most commonly given to a far-right movement and political party in Romania in the period from 1927 into the early part of World War II. The Iron Guard was ultra-nationalist, anti-communist who promoted the Orthodox Christian faith. It is also considered an antisemitic organization, an ideologist of which even going as far as to demand an introduction of "state anti-semitism".

The Legion also differed from other fascist movements in that it had its mass base among the peasantry and students, rather than among military veterans. However, the legionnaires shared the fascist penchant for violence, up to and including political assassinations.

With Codreanu as a charismatic leader, the Legion was known for skillful propaganda, including a very capable use of spectacle. Utilizing marches, religious processions and patriotic and partisan hymns and anthems, along with volunteer work and charitable campaigns in rural areas in support of its anti-Communist, anti-Semitic, anti-liberal, and anti-parliamentary philosophy,

On December 10, 1933, the Romanian Liberal Prime Minister Ion Duca banned the Iron Guard. After a brief period of arrests, beatings, torture and even killings, (12 members of the Legionary Movement were murdered by the police force), Iron Guard members retaliated on December 29, 1933 by assassinating Duca on the platform of the Sinaia railway station.

Romanian Iron GuardOriginally founded by Corneliu Zelea Codreanu on July 24, 1927, as the Legion of the Archangel Michael ("Legiunea Arhanghelului Mihail"), and led by him until his death in 1938, adherents to the movement continued to be widely referred to as "legionnaires" (sometimes "legionaries"; Romanian: legionarii) and the organization as the "Legion" or the "Legionary Movement" ("Mişcarea Legionară"), despite various changes of the (intermittently banned) organization's name. In March 1930 Codreanu formed the "Iron Guard" ("Garda de Fier") as a paramilitary political branch of the Legion; this name eventually came to refer to the Legion itself. Later, in June 1935, the Legion changed its official name to the "Totul pentru Ţară" party, literally "Everything for the Country", but commonly translated as "Everything for the Fatherland" or occasionally "Everything for the Motherland".

Historian Stanley G. Payne writes in his study of Fascism, "The Legion was arguably the most unusual mass movement of interwar Europe." The Legion contrasted with most other European fascist movements of the period in its overt religiosity (in the form of an embrace of the Romanian Orthodox religion). According to Ioanid, the Legion "willingly inserted strong elements of Orthodox Christianity into its political doctrine to the point of becoming one of the rare modern European political movements with a religious ideological structure."

The movement's leader, Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, was a religious mystic who aimed at a spiritual resurrection for the nation. According to Codreanu's heterodox philosophy, human life was a sinful, violent political war, which would ultimately be transcended by the spiritual nation. In this schema, the Legionnaire might have to perform fanatical and violent actions that would condemn him to damnation, which was considered the ultimate sacrifice for the nation. Like many other fascist movements, the Legion called for a revolutionary "new man". As for economics, there was no straightforward program, but the Legion generally promoted the idea of a communal or national economy, rejecting capitalism as overly materialistic. The movement considered its main enemies to be present political leaders and the Jews.

Greenshirt Death Squads

During the 1930s, three notable death squads emerged from Romania's Iron Guard: the Nicadori, the Decemviri, and the Răzbunători. Motivated by a combination of fascist political ideology and religious-nationalist mysticism, they carried out several high-level political assassinations in the inter-war period.

The Decemviri, so called because they numbered ten men, like their Ancient Roman equivalents, the Decemviri, shot Mihai Stelescu in his hospital bed between 38 and about 200 times on July 16, 1936. After shooting him, they cut him into pieces with axes and danced around the body of the victim. Four of those involved in Stelescu's execution were theology students. Stelescu had left the Iron Guard, forming the rival Crusade of Romanianism, and launching a series of public attacks against Codreanu. Codreanu could not abide this betrayal, although both he and the assassins (rather implausibly) denied he knew about the plan or had consented to it.

Ion Caratănase led the squad; its other members were Iosif Bozântan, Ştefan Curcă, Ion Pele, Grigore Ion State, Ion Atanasiu, Gavrilă Bogdan, Radu Vlad, Ştefan Georgescu and Ion Trandafir. Arrested immediately, the men were sentenced to hard labour for life. They were killed, along with the Nicadori and Codreanu, on November 30, 1938, while being transported to Jilava prison.

Iron Guard Death Squads

Răzbunătorii – "the Avengers" – assassinated Prime Minister Armand Călinescu on September 21, 1939. Călinescu had been Minister of the Interior at the time of Codreanu's death, and thus had some connection with it. A few months after Codreanu was killed, King Carol's police uncovered a plot to exact revenge on Călinescu. Carol retaliated by ordering members of the Iron Guard rounded up and put to death without trial. The exact number executed was never known; estimates were as high as 6000.

They fired over 20 bullets into his body, also killing his driver and wounding his bodyguard. The assailants were caught shortly before midnight on the day of the attack. On King Carol's orders, they were taken to the spot where they had killed the premier. Huge floodlights from army trucks illuminated the area so that the assembled crowd could watch as the 9 men were shot in the head with their own guns. The bodies were left under the lights for days. Above them was a large banner reading: De acum înainte, aceasta va fi soarta trădătorilor de ţară ("From now on, this shall be the fate of those who betray the country"). Soldiers and police were given a free hand to deal with any and all suspected members of the Iron Guard, and thousands of young men were shot, hanged from telegraph poles, or tortured to death. A few hundred escaped to Germany.


Greenshirts - United Kingdom

Green Shirt Movement for Social Credit

Notable supporters of Social Credit or "monetary reform" in Britain in the 1920s and 1930s included A. V. Roe the aircraft manufacturer, Frederick Soddy the scientist, and Oswald Mosley, in 1928-30 a member of the Labour Government but later the leader of the British Union of Fascists. Major Douglas, the British pioneer of Social Credit did not believe that Social Credit should be a political party.

Social Credit Party of Great Britain & Northern Ireland

The Social Credit Party of Great Britain and Northern Ireland was a political party in the United Kingdom. It grew out of the Kibbo Kift, which was established in 1920 as a more craft-based alternative for youth to the Boy Scouts.

The organisation was led by John Hargrave, who gradually turned the movement into a paramilitary movement for social credit. With its supporters wearing a political uniform of green shirts, in 1932 it became known as the Green Shirt Movement for Social Credit and in 1935 it took its final name, the Social Credit Party. The party published the newspaper Attack and was linked to a small number of incidents in which green-painted bricks were thrown through windows, including at 11 Downing Street, the official residence of the Chancellor of the Exchequer.

The party stood a single candidate in the 1935 general election, a Mr. W. Townend, who polled 11% of the vote in Leeds South. Despite this lack of success, Hargrave was invited by William Aberhart to take an advisory post in the Government of the Province of Alberta, Canada, that had been formed by the Social Credit Party of Alberta.

The party began to decline when political uniforms were banned in 1937. Its activities were curtailed during World War II, and attempts to rebuild afterwards around a campaign against bread rationing had little success. Hargrave stood again in the 1950 general election, but after he gained only 551 votes, the party disbanded itself in 1951.

A second Social Credit Party was founded in 1965 by C. J. Hunt, a member of the former party, but it had little success and disbanded in 1978.


Greenshirts (National Corporate Party) in Ireland

The Greenshirts was the name used for followers of Eoin O'Duffy's openly fascist National Corporate Party following the split from Fine Gael. In 1936 O'Duffy led a volunteer Irish Brigade for Franco in the Spanish Civil War and retired on his return. Without him both the Greenshirts and National Corporate Party faded away. Fine Gael became one of Ireland's main democratic political parties.

The Greenshirts are different from the better-known Blueshirts which was the name used by O'Duffy's followers before the split in Fine Gael, although only 80 of the Blueshirts later became Greenshirts.


Blueshirts - Ireland National Guard

Army Comrades Association (ACA)

The Army Comrades Association (ACA), later named the National Guard and better known by the nickname The Blueshirts (Irish: Na Léinte Gorma), was a right-wing Irish political organisation active in the 1930s.

Blueshirts FlagThe Blueshirts are sometimes described as "quasi-fascist", and the extent to which they can be seen as the Irish equivalent of Hitler's Brownshirts and Mussolini's Blackshirts continues to be debated. They employed paramilitary-style uniforms, greeted each other with the Roman salute, and participated in street fights against the IRA.

In March 1932, Éamon de Valera became President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State. One of his first acts was to repeal the ban on the IRA. He also released many republican prisoners from jail. Following these moves, the IRA became increasingly active in disrupting the activities of the opposition party, Cumann na nGaedheal.

The Blueshirts felt that freedom of speech was being repressed, and began to provide security at Cumann na nGaedheal events. This led to several serious clashes between the IRA and the Blueshirts.

In January 1933, de Valera called a surprise election, which Fianna Fáil won comfortably. The election campaign saw a serious escalation of rioting between IRA and ACA supporters. In April 1933, the ACA began wearing the distinctive St. Patrick's Blue shirt uniform.

Eoin O'Duffy was a guerrilla leader in the Irish Republican Army during the Irish War of Independence; an Irish Army general during the Civil War, and the Irish police commissioner in the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1933.

After de Valera's re-election in February 1933, he dismissed O'Duffy as commissioner, and in July of that year, O'Duffy took control of the ACA and re-named it the National Guard. He re-modelled the organisation, adopting elements of European fascism, such as the Roman straight-arm salute, uniforms and huge rallies.

Membership of the new organisation became limited to people who were Irish or whose parents "profess the Christian faith". O'Duffy was an admirer of Benito Mussolini, and the Blueshirts adopted corporatism as their chief political aim.


Blueshirts - Canadian National Socialist Unity Party

National Unity Party - Parti National Social Chrétien

The Parti National Social Chrétien was a Canadian political party formed by Adrien Arcand in February 1934. The party identified with anti-semitism, and German leader Adolf Hitler's Nazism. The party was later known, in English, as the Canadian National Socialist Unity Party or National Unity Party.

Canadian National Socialist Unity PartyThe party was formed by Adrien Arcand in February 1934. It was known in English as the Christian National Socialist Party. Arcand was a Quebec-based fascist and anti-semite. An admirer of Adolf Hitler, Arcand referred to himself as the "Canadian führer".

In October 1934, the party merged with the Canadian Nationalist Party, which was based in the Prairie provinces. By the mid 1930s, the party had some success, with a few thousand members mainly concentrated in Quebec, British Columbia and Alberta.

In June 1938, it merged with Nazi and other racist clubs in Ontario and Quebec, many of which were known as Swastika clubs, to form the National Unity Party at a national convention held in Kingston, Ontario. At a time of English-French Canadian tension, Arcand tried to create a pan-Canadian (English and French) nationalist political movement. It was based on the National Socialist (Nazi) Party in Germany. Arcand then proceeded to Toronto where his new party held a rally of 800 supporters at Massey Hall. However, the anti-fascist Canadian League for Peace and Democracy held a simultaneious rally of 10,000 people at Maple Leaf Gardens in opposition to Arcand.

The group was known colloquially as the "Blue Shirts", and commonly fought with immigrants, Canadian minorities and leftist groups. The group boasted that it would seize power in Canada, but the party exaggerated its own influence.

On May 30, 1940, the party was banned under the Defence of Canada Regulations of the War Measures Act, and Arcand and many of his followers were arrested and detained for the duration of the war.


Goldshirts - Revolutionary Mexicanist Action

The Revolutionary Mexicanist Action (Spanish: Acción Revolucionaria Mexicanista), better known as the Gold shirts (Spanish: Camisas Doradas), was a Mexican fascist paramilitary organization in the 1930s.

Pancho Villa
The group was founded by general Nicolás Rodríguez Carrasco in 1933 with the official title of Acción Revolucionaria Mexicana (Mexican Revolutionary Action). Carrasco, who had been a supporter of Pancho Villa until he deserted in 1918, named the group after the dorados, Villa's "golden" group of elite soldiers. The Gold shirts opposed the reforms of president Lázaro Cárdenas and were protected by former president Plutarco Elías Calles, who had become an enemy of Cárdenas. The Gold Shirts often violently clashed with supporters of the Mexican Communist Party and the Red Shirts and demanded the immediate deportation of all Jews and Chinese from Mexico. Although the dorados copied their style from the Blackshirts and Sturmabteilung, copying the anti-communism and authoritarianism of the former and the anti-Semitism of the latter, they nonetheless lacked the fascist mission, being essentially (according to Fascism expert Payne) counterrevolutionary and reactionary and as such were more easily employed by the existing state.

During the Maximato era of the formerly heavily anticlerical Calles regime, the Gold shirts were moderately in favour of religious liberty for the Catholic Church but because they still at times acted in an anticlericalist way against priests wearing the cassock), Cristeros never entered their ranks.

After Calles was deported by Cárdenas on April 9, 1936, the group lost its protector. A few months later, Rodríguez was arrested and deported to Texas in August 1936, from where he continued to lead the group until his death in 1940. After Mexico's declaration of war upon the axis powers on May 22, 1942, the Gold shirts were banned.


Greyshirts are (ethnically Dutch) South African Nazis

Greyshirts or Gryshemde was a name given to a South African Nazi movement that existed during the 1930s and 1940s. Initially referring only to a paramilitary group, it soon became shorthand for the movement as a whole.

The NSDAP/AO arrived in South Africa in 1932 and as a result a number of groups sympathetic to Nazism emerged. The most notable of these was the South African Gentile National Socialist Movement (also known as the South African Christian National Socialist Movement), formed by Louis Weichardt the following year. A fiercely anti-Semitic group, it organised the Gryshemde as its equivalent of the Sturmabteilung, although the grey shirt became so associated with the group that it was applied to the movement as a whole. In contrast to some extremist groups the Greyshirts did not split along linguistic lines, but rather sought to work with both the Afrikaans and the English-speaking populations.

The Greyshirts struggled to maintain unity and spawned a number of minor splinter groups, such as Johannes von Moltke's South African Fascists. Most of these groups united under Daniel François Malan's aegis when he formed his 'Purified' National Party, although the Greyshirts did not take part and contested the 1938 election alone. The decision proved unwise, however, as the Greyshirts failed to make any impact. The group was roundly attacked by the National Party, with an article appearing in Die Burger in October 1934 stating that: 'We believe that this party, generally known as the Greyshirts, under the cloak of an anti-Jewish movement, strives for a dangerous form of government in South Africa. The Greyshirts have as their aim to set up a dictator in South Africa.'

Jewish immigration from Nazi Germany to South Africa grew significantly during the 1930s and the Greyshirts launched a campaign calling for an end to the practice. A ship was chartered by the Council for German Jewry, a UK-based group, to bring as many Jews as possible to Cape Town, leading to the Greyshirts organising a mass protest against the move. The scale of opposition was such that Sarah Millin appealed to Jan Smuts to deal with the Greyshirts, although her request was ignored. Indeed relations between the National Party and the Greyshirts actually improved, initially as a result of a 1937 letter from Frans Erasmus, at the time Secretary of the National Party, praising the Greyshirts for bringing the "Jewish problem" to the fore and culminating in a number of leading Greyshirts also holding National Party membership.

Activities were monitored during the Second World War, although the Greyshirts continued to exist and renamed themselves the White Workers Party in 1949. However by this time most of the membership had been lost to the Herenigde Nasionale Party and so the Greyshirts faded.


Blue Shirts Society - Taiwan (Kuomintang)

The Blue Shirts Society (藍衣社 in Chinese, hereinafter referred to as the BSS) also known as the Society of Practice of the Three Principles of the People (三民主義力行社 in Chinese, hereinafter referred to as the SPTPP), the Spirit Encouragement Society (勵志社 in Chinese) and the China Reconstruction Society (中華復興社 ,hereinafter referred to as the CRS in short), was a secret clique in the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party). Under the direction of Chiang Kai-shek it sought to lead the KMT and China by following the ideology of Fascism and was a secret police or para-military force.

Although in its early stage the society's most important members came from the Whampoa Military Academy, and constituted elements of the KMT's Whampoa Clique, by the 1930s its influence extended into the military and political spheres, and had influence upon China's economy and society. The rise and fall of the Blue Shirt Society was rapid, but obscure, and was seldom mentioned again by either the KMT or the Communist Party of China after the establishment of the People's Republic of China and the following KMT domination on Taiwan.

The Blue Shirts origins can be traced to the Whampoa Clique of 1924 - professional military officers - many of whom had sworn personal loyalty to Chiang Kai-shek, as well to the ideals of Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the People.

Unlike Teng, He was a professional politician, and never concealed his ambition for power. After fostering a Hunan Clique in the BSS, Chiang became concerned the BSS might threaten his governance. In 1934 he accused the BSS of corruption and malfunction, dismissing He as General Secretary. Liu Jianqun was appointed as successor. With NJSSD and the Southwestern Clique behind him, and the Zhejiang Clique led by Hu Zongnan and Dai Li opposing him, Liu Jianqun's BSS faced the same fragmented fate as the KMT it had helped get rid of.



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